One year old shoots from well established plants can sometimes reach 8 feet tall in a single season. Ponderosa pine Northern Great Plains. On the Oregon coast, 4-year-old red elderberry seedlings were 1 to 3 feet 0. In reality, they are different enough from each other that S. Density of viable seed was apparently not tied to stand age:.
Stable aspen-cottonwood, no conifers. Fruits have been used to make jams, jellies and pie fillings, but are not considered to be as flavorful as the American elderberry Sambucus canadensis. Northern and Central Rockies Forested. Mixed conifer-upland western redcedar-western hemlock. The root is probably the most poisonous and may be responsible for occasional pig deaths; cattle and sheep have died after eating leaves and young shoots.
A greenhouse study found red elderberry showed better seedling emergence when not subject to sustained high temperatures. Red elderberry does not often gain dominance after fire; it typically remains a minor component of the vegetation on sites where it occurred in low numbers before fire for example, [ ]. Do not be fooled by deer that eat the leaves and stems or by home remedies that call for black elderberry parts. The Dena'ina made popguns from the hollow stems, using a shelf fungus Polyporus betulinus for ammunition [ ]. Black elderberry Sambucus nigra spp. On the Wasatch Plateau of central Utah, red elderberry was one of several woody species pioneering on depleted mountain meadow rangelands that had been subject to severe flooding after decades of overgrazing by livestock [ 79 ].
The bottom leaflet often is 3-lobed. Rhizome sprouts may flower in their 2nd year [ 52 ]. See the Research Project Summary of the Clearwater study for further details on the postfire response of red elderberry and 33 other plant species. Red elderberry was not present on study sites before the fires [ ], suggesting that it established from on- or off-site seed, not sprouts. Flower, fruit, and seed production: